Advanced Technology

Overview of civil engineering technologies

Bosphorus Crossing

An immersed tube tunnel was constructed at the greatest depth in the world.
The railway tunnel uses the latest technologies to connect Europe and Asia.

Bosphorus Crossing Image1

The railway tunnel was constructed under the Bosphorus strait, which divides the Turkish city of Istanbul into its eastern and western halves. The tunnel spans the Bosphorus strait, linking Kazlicesme station and Ayrikcesme, a new station, over a distance of 13,558 m. Now, a single railway tunnel connects the European and Asian continents. A trans-Bosphorus-strait tunnel has been a dream project for the Turkish people. Designs were drafted in 1860, in the era of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. The underwater tunnel was successfully constructed by immersing tube elements at the world’s greatest depth. The land tunnel was constructed using both the shield tunneling method and New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM). The project incorporated the essence of tunneling techniques.

Bosphorus Crossing Image2

Immersed tube tunneling method, which involves connecting tube elements immersed at a maximum depth of 60m on the seabed.

The tube elements are floated, towed to the point of immersion and sunk for joining. A continuous tunnel is constructed on the bed by repeating this process. The lower parts of the eleven tube elements, 15.3m wide, 8.6m high, and 135m in maximum length, were constructed at a dry dock and the upper parts on the sea. Then, the tube elements were towed 40km and sunk precisely to a maximum depth of 60m for interconnection at the specied locations using GPS.

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